Literacy Status Financial Details National Literacy Missio Directorate of Adult Education
NLM – An Assessment:
The literacy campaigns, the dominant strategy of the NLM after the Ernakulum campaign, saw an unprecedented mobilization of the people and community for imparting functional literacy to the non-literates Ernakulum and Kottayam in Kerala, Pudukottai in Tamil Nadu, Nellore and West Godavari in Andhra Pradesh, Birbhum, Burdwan and Midnapore in West Bengal, Durg in Madhya Pradesh, Ajmer, Jhunjhunu, and Sikar in Rajasthan, Roopnagar in Punjab, Dumka in Jharkhand and Begusarai in Bihar were examples of successful literacy districts. The center of NLM was not merely the knowledge of the three R’s, but on functional literacy, which integrated “knowing the causes of one’s deprivation and taking steps for their amelioration,” and emphasized the values of national integration and small family norms. The literacy rates saw impressive gains on the whole, having risen from 52% in 1991 to 64.8% in 2001, though regional variations and disparities are still a matter of concern.
The assignment method of the early 90’s, made way for a programme based approach while the PLPs were sanctioned. Still as TLCs threw up many attractive and original models, unfortunately the Post Literacy Programmes did not. PLP began to be viewed as a middle phase during which a district was being readied for Continuing Education Programme. The political and institute will to perform literacy programmes was also reduced in numerous states of the country. The CECs, were envisaged as centres of life long knowledge, but they functioned merely as reading rooms and recreational centres, where occasionally some residual illiterates were imparted literacy skills. No funds were offer for the target specific programmes viz the Equivalency, a number of reasons were responsible for the lukewarm response to the Scheme of Continuing Education. This included a really low, insufficient budget provision, delay in the operationalization of the CECs by the districts, non achievement of the target specific programmes viz the equivalency programme, the income generation programme, the excellence of life development programme and the individual interest promotion programme; inadequate motivation and training of Voluntary Teachers/Preraks, inadequate payment made to literacy functionaries; lack of dedicated functionaries for the adult education programmes; lack of convergence with other developmental programmes, small levels of community participation. The CE Programme, in achieve, was not able to recognize its complete potential. These drawbacks/gaps would be addressed in a more focused manner.
In the mean while the literacy scenario underwent a sea change. The literacy map of India changed. 95 districts in India are in essential literacy phase, 174 in post literacy phase and 328 in the Continuing Education phase. There are 124 million neo-literates, which have been covered under literacy programmes so far for whom, lifelong occasion require to be provided. There is also require to amalgamate the three phases of literacy, basic literacy, post literacy and continuing education into one so that the gains of skill increase, worth of life improvement, self reliance and empowerment, the basic tenets of literacy as defined by the NLM are reached to all districts, particularly those difficult districts in the Hindi speaking belt which are still in the basic literacy phase.
The NLM has been now focused on achieving a threshold level of 75% literacy by 2007. GOAL 4 of EFA as applicable to literacy aims at achieving a 50% progress in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults. Planning Commission lays down a target of 85% literacy rate to be achieved by the end of the XI Plan.
The growth rate for literacy throughout the past decade has been 12.63%. While the male literacy has grown by 11.13%, female literacy has grown by 14.38%.In order to achieve a target of 85% overall literacy rate, it is necessary that the rate of development of male literacy is raised to 1.4% during the XI Plan by changing the strategy and introducing innovations, so that the male literacy grows to 90% by 2011. Female literacy would have to be raised to at least 80% by the end of the Plan period so that the gender gap is minimized to 10%.
The revamped strategy of the NLM includes an integrated comprehensive learning programme called Lifelong Education & Awareness Programme.

Review of the National Adult Education

Literacy Status

National Literacy Mission

Programmes under National Literacy Mission

NLM – An Assessment

Financial Details

Goals for the XI Plan

Officers of National Literacy Mission

Directorate of Adult Education
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