Literacy Status Financial Details National Literacy Missio Directorate of Adult Education
 
 
Programmes under National Literacy Mission
   
Literacy Campaigns/Post Literacy Programme:
 
The Total Literacy Campaign is the chief strategy of National Literacy work Campaign for eradication of illiteracy. The TLCs have positive features, which create them exclusive and distinguish them from other government programmes. These campaigns are – area-specific, time-bound, participative, and cost-effective and outcome oriented. These are implemented through Zilla Saksharata Samities (ZSS) (district level literacy committees) as independent and autonomous bodies, having due representation of all sections of society. The ZSS is headed by District Collector/Magistrate. The campaign approach to literacy is characterized by large-scale mobilization during a multi-faceted communication strategy.   The survey undertaken at the grass-root level also serves as a tool of planning, mobilization and environment building. The organization information system in a campaign is based on the twin principles of participation and correction. Apart from imparting functional literacy, TLC also disseminates a ‘basket’ of other socially related messages such as enrolment and retention of children in schools, immunization, spread of small family norms, women’s equality and empowerment, peace and communal harmony etc.   These literacy campaigns generated a demand for primary education, which has been reflected by quickly growing enrolment ratio in schools. As a result, the number of non-literates entering 15-35 age groups has been declining. At this period as a result, necessary to ensure that neo-literates do not relapse into illiteracy and also acquire vocational skills.
 
The necessary literacy skills acquired by millions of non-literates are at best fragile. Present is a better possibility of neo-literates regressing into partial or total illiteracy unless special efforts are continued to consolidate, sustain and possibly enhance their literacy levels. The first phase of basic literacy instruction and the second phase of consolidation, remediation and skill up-gradation (Post Literacy Programme) are at present being treated as one integrated project, to ensure smooth development from one stage to another to attain continuity, efficiency and convergence. The National Literacy Mission aims at ensuring that the Total Literacy Campaigns and the Post-literacy Programmes successfully move on to Continuing Education, which provides life-long learning.
       
The TLC and PLP are funded on the basis of a per learner cost. This can range from Rs. 90-180 in respect of TLC and Rs. 90-130 for PLP projects. The period of TLC is 12 to 18 months, out of which half is devoted to preparations and half to actual teaching/learning activities. The period of PLP is one year. The total cost of the project is shared between the Central and State Governments for in the ratio of 2:1 respectively for general districts and 4:1 respectively for tribal districts.
       
The literacy skills are imparted to the beneficiaries in their local dialect, as far as possible. NLM prepares the education learning material after taking into account the local requirements and the specific requirements of the clientele group. Keeping in sight the completely special socio-economic and cultural environment of the tribals, it has been the endeavour of the NLM to arrange the primers right to the precise requirements of the tribal community in their own tribal language or dialect or the spoken language.  
 
Accelerated Female Literacy Programme:

Since per Census, 2001, 47 districts in the country had a female literacy rate below 30%. Therefore, dealing with low female literacy was of huge concern to the National Literacy Mission and it was decided to target the 47 low female literacy districts for development. While most of these districts are concentrated in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Jharkhand, special innovative programmes were taken up in these districts for promoting female literacy.

A particular project ‘Accelerated Female Literacy Projects (AFLP)’ was launched to raise the female literacy rate of the 8 districts of Uttar Pradesh to cover 25.00 lakhs illiterate women in 15 to 35 age group. The districts are Maharajganj, Siddharathnagar, Balrampur, Gonda, Shravasti, Bahraich, Rampur and Badayun. The programme was implemented through 97 NGOs.
 
Female literacy programme in the State of Bihar was implemented in 13 low female literacy districts in the Ist phase to cover 24.03 lakhs women learners in 15-35 age group. These districts were West Champaran, East Champaran, Sheohar, Sitamarhi, Supaul, Araria, Kishanganj, Purnia, Madhepura, Saharsa, Khagaria, Banka and Jamui. The projects were implemented under the aegis of Zilla Saksharata Samiti of particular districts with the active involvement of Panchayati Raj functionaries, women volunteer teachers and women Self Help Groups. The particular female literacy programme was implemented by the Zilla Saksharata Samitis in the districts along with on going TLC, PLP programmes already sanctioned by NLM.
 
9 districts in Orissa, having low female literacy rates, were covered under particular Project for Accelerated Female Literacy Programme. These districts are Koraput, Nabrangpur, Malkangiri, Rayagada, Kalahandi, Gajapati, Sonepur, Bolangir and Naupada.
 
A particular female literacy programme was implemented in 5 low female literacy districts of Jharkhand. These districts are Pakur, Garhwa, Sahibganj, Giridih and Godda. The programme was implemented under the aegis of Zilla Saksharata Samities of particular districts with the active involvement of Panchayati Raj Institutions/women social workers etc.
 
Though the Total Literacy Campaigns took the form of a mass movement and spread during the country, in many cases a number of campaigns stagnated due to natural calamities, lack of political will, frequent transfer of Collectors, etc.Despite success of literacy phase, there were still pockets of residual illiteracy.
 
In these areas, Projects for Residual Illiteracy (PRIs) were taken after the conclusion of TLCs to cover the remaining illiterates. PRIs have so far been taken up in 9 districts of Rajasthan, 10 districts of Andhra Pradesh, 7 districts of Bihar, 14 districts of Karnataka and 3 districts of Tripura. PRIs were also sanctioned in 12 districts of Madhya Pradesh and 8 districts of West Bengal.   
 
Special literacy drive in 150 districts:
 
The Council of the National Literacy Mission ability in its 8th meeting held on 11.4.2005 took stock of the growth made in promoting literacy in the country and was of the view that a renewed focus and revitalization of the National Literacy Mission was needed to reach the target of 75% literacy by 2007.The Council, based on 2001 census literacy data, decided to take up a special literacy drive in 150 districts, which have the lowest literacy rates in the country. These 150 districts are chiefly in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Orissa. The particular drive for reduction of the residual illiteracy aims to cover almost 36 million illiterates between 2005-07. So far, 134 districts in the States of Arunachal Pradesh (7), Andhra Pradesh (8), Bihar (26), Chhattisgarh (4), Jammu & Kashmir (8), Rajasthan (9), Jharkhand (12), Karnataka (2), Madhya Pradesh (9), Meghalaya (3) Nagaland (2), Orissa (10), Punjab (1), Uttar Pradesh (24) & West Bengal (4) have been covered under the Special Literacy drive.  

Continuing Education:

The Continuing Education Scheme provides a knowledge continuum to the efforts of Total Literacy and Post Literacy Programmes in the country. The chief thrust is on providing further learning opportunities to neo-literates by setting up of Continuing Education Centres (CECs) which offer area-specific, need-based opportunities for basic literacy, upgradation of literacy skills, pursuit of alternative educational programmes, vocational skills and also support social and occupational development. The scheme also undertakes a number of chief programmes such as – Equivalency programme, facilitating the participants to obtain or upgrade their vocational skills and take up income-generating activities; Quality of life progress programme to equip learners and the community with critical information, attitude, values and skills to raise their standards of living; and Individual interest promotion programme providing opportunities for learners to participate and learn about their individually chosen social, health, physical, cultural, and artistic interests.
 
Under the scheme the main thrust is given to setting up of Continuing Education Centre (CEC) which will function as a focal point for providing learning opportunities such as library, reading room, learning centre, training centre, information centre, charcha mandal, development centre, cultural centre, sports centre and other individual interest promotion programme centre. One CEC is set up for a population of 2000 to 2500.For a group of about 10-15 CECs, there is a Nodal CEC, which monitors and oversees the activities of those cluster of CECs. Moreover the provisions of setting up of CECs, the scheme of Continuing Education also provides the opportunity to undertake various activities linking alternative and innovative approaches to cater to the needs of the learners. Taking into account local conditions and the resources available, various target specific activities such as Equivalency Programmes (EPs), Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs), Income Generating Programmes (AGPs) and Individual Interest Promotion Programmes (IIPPs) could be organized for specific groups of beneficiaries.

The programmes of Continuing Education are being implemented under the aegis of Zilla Saksharata Samitis.ZSSs along with district, block and gram panchayat level committees are responsible to oversee the programme in the entire district.  
 
Each CEC will be annually provided assistance of Rs.25,000/- as recurring and non-recurring grant, and nodal CEC Rs.45,000/- as recurring and non-recurring grant with an additional provision of house rent for few selected centres where no government or community building is available to run the centre. In the revised scheme a provision of Assistant Prerak has been made who will be primarily responsible for conducting literacy classes during continuing education programme.
 
The scheme envisages 100 per cent assistance to the States for the first three years of the implementation. The State Governments are required to share 50 per cent of the expenditure during the 4th and 5th year of the project, and thereafter take over the total responsibility for the programme.  
 
Involvement of NGOs:


The National Literacy Mission (NLM) fully recognizes the vast potential of NGOs in furthering its objectives and has taken measures to strengthen its partnership with NGOs and has assigned them an active promotional role in the literacy movement. Apart from imparting literacy, the NGOs provide academic and technical resource support through experimental and innovative programmes and also conducting evaluation and impact studies; organization of workshops, seminars, etc.
 
State Resource Centres:
 
The scheme of establishing State Resource Centres at State level was formulated by the then Ministry of Education in 1976 with the objective of providing technical and resource support to the adult education programme on the recommendation of Standing Committee of the CABE.
 
The State Resource Centres function under the aegis of Non Government Organizations (NGOs) or Universities. Beginning with 14 State Resource Centres in 1980s the number has gone up to 26.These State Resource Centres provide technical and academic resource support to the literacy programmes in the country.
 
The role and functions of State Resource Centres have expanded over the years. Initially, focus of the State Resource Centres was on Non-Formal Education (NFE) of the drop-out children and un-enrolled youth, after the launching of National Adult Education Programme (NAEP) in 1978, the State Resource Centres were required to concentrate on the eradication of illiteracy among 15-35 age-group by organizing training programmes and production of teaching/learning material for Adult Education. All State Resource Centres have Population and Development Education Units (PDE).PDE units also prepare teaching/learning materials publicity material and organize training programmes for literacy functionaries and NGOs on the Population and Development Education including HIV/AIDS themes.
 
Main functions of State Resource Centres:

1. Growth of teaching/learning and training materials for literacy programmes.
2. Production and dissemination (including translation) of literature for adult education.
3. Training literacy functionaries
4. Undertaking motivational and environment building activities for adult education.
5. Multi media works
6. Running of field programmes
7. Action research, evaluation and monitoring of literacy projects.
8. Undertaking innovative projects to identify future need of literacy programmes.
 
Some of the SRCs have taken up several innovative projects, which are pioneering.For example, SRC, Kolkata has initiated an Action Research Project on Life Skills Education for the benefit of commercial sex workers and their adolescent girls.   In addition, they are also counseling on HIV/AIDS.SRC, Tamil Nadu is providing resource support, in collaboration with Chennai Municipal Corporation for setting up Special Schools for street children so that they are re-enrolled in formal schools. These special schools also help in identifying individual talents in these children and provide facilities for further nurturing their talents either in sports, arts or academics. SRC, Kerala in collaboration with the Kerala Federation of the Blind has converted the basic literacy primer to the Braille letter for the benefit of visually imparted adult illiterate population.This Braille Literacy Programme is being taken up in the Mallapuram Panchayat for 300 blind persons and the centres are being run under the supervision of the Nodal Preraks of the CE Centres.
 
Jan Shikshan Sansthan:
 
The scheme of Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS) is a unique scheme crafted by the Government of India.JSSs are institutes of People’s Education focusing on the poor, the illiterates, the neo-literates, the under-privileged and the un-reached.The Jan Shikshan Sansthans are unique in that they do not provide just skill development, but link literacy with vocational skills and provide large doses of Life Enrichment Education (LEE) to the people.They do not work in isolation but aim for convergence with other stakeholders in society. It is their endeavour to shape their beneficiaries into self reliant and self-assured employees and entrepreneurs.
 
The Jan Shikshan Sansthans are unique also because they offer quality vocational skills and technical knowledge at a very low cost.Their doors are open to everyone and they reach out to their clientele groups by setting up sub centres in the heart of the slum or in remote rural areas.They are different from other vocational training institutions as they offer quality vocational skills and technical knowledge at such a low cost; provide need based and literacy-linked vocational training in most courses without insisting on age limit or prior educational qualifications; reach out to the clientele in their areas unlike other institutions which the clientele has to access whether near or far; offer a multi-faceted skill-knowledge-awareness enhancement and outlook formation trainings and inputs and empowerment-oriented interventions in respect of social, economic and health status improvement of women and adolescent girls.
 
The scheme of Jan Shikshan Santhan (JSS) was initially launched in 1967 as Shramik Vidyapeeth, a polyvalent or multi-faceted adult education institution, aimed at improving the vocational skills and quality of life of the industrial workers and their family members as well as those persons who had been migrating from rural to urban settings.
 
The scheme of Shramik Vidyapeeth was renamed as Jan Shikshan Sansthan in April 2000.Along with the change in its name came the change in its focus. A scheme that was meant for the industrial workers and their families was expanded both in terms of its clientele and focus and was extended to the rural areas.There was logic for its expansion.Total Literacy Campaigns, launched after the setting up of the National Literacy Mission in 1988, had transformed the literacy landscape of the country and created an army of neo-literates who having realized the power of the written word, now wanted to use it to improve their livelihoods through skill development.The post-literacy programme had given a few of them the taste of vocational skills but the continuing education programme promised to extend it to many more beneficiaries.That became the rationale of setting up more Jan Shikshan Sansthans, to match the needs of the districts. Today, there 221 Jan Shikshan Sansthans in the country and they are expected to act as district level resource support agencies especially in regard to organization of vocational training and skill development programmes for the neo-literates and other target groups of the continuing education programme.The current aim is that the JSSs should progressively move towards having 50% of their beneficiaries from amongst the neo-literates. The state-wise list of JSSs established so far is given below:

   
S. No. STATE/UT Number of JSSs

1

ANDHRA PRADESH

12

2

ARUNACHAL PRADESH

1

3

ASSAM

3

4

BIHAR

9

5

CHHATTISGARH

3

6

DELHI

3

7

GOA

1

8

GUJARAT

8

9

HARYANA

6

10

JAMMU & KASHMIR

2

11

JHARKHAND

5

12

KARNATAKA

10

13

KERALA

11

14

MADHYA PRADESH

27

15

MAHARASHTRA

18

16

MANIPUR

3

17

MIZORAM

1

18

NAGALAND

1

19

ORISSA

15

20

PUNJAB

2

21

RAJASTHAN

6

22

TAMILNADU

10

23

TRIPURA

1

24

UTTARAKHAND

6

25

UTTAR PRADESH

47

26

WEST BENGAL

9

27

CHANDIGARH

1

 

TOTAL

221


The objectives of JSS were redefined in the context of the literacy movement which was graduating rapidly into Post-Literacy (PL) and Continuing Education (CE) phases, with vocational and life skill up-gradation as a part of their agenda. The enhanced role of the JSS included the following: (i) impact vocational skills, life skills and technical knowledge to neo-literates and their trainees and raise their efficiency and increase their productive ability; (ii) provide academic and technical resource support to Zila Saksharta Samiti (ZSS), including training its Resource Persons, Master Trainers and Preraks, to take up vocational and skill development programmes primarily for neoliterates; (iii) serve as Nodal Continuing Education Centre (NCEC) and also to manage, coordinate, supervise and monitor 10-20 CECs, as envisaged in the Scheme of Continuing Education Programme; (iv) organize equivalency programmes for its beneficiaries through National and State Open Schools; (v) through Life Enrichment Education (LEE), wide the knowledge and understanding of the social, economic and political systems among its beneficiaries in order to create a critical awareness about the environment; (vi) promote national goals such as secularism, national integration, women’s equality, protection and conservation of the environment.
 
The Jan Shikshan Sansthans offer a large number of vocational training programmes from candle making to computer courses. In the year 2006-07, 17.53 lakh beneficiaries have been covered under various vocational training programmes and other activities.
  Background

Review of the National Adult Education

Literacy Status

National Literacy Mission

Programmes under National Literacy Mission

NLM – An Assessment

Financial Details

Goals for the XI Plan

Officers of National Literacy Mission

Directorate of Adult Education
 
   
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